An old Scientific American article looks at the findings from three decades of research into how to raise intelligent children.
Our society worships talent, and many people assume that possessing superior intelligence or abilityâ€”along with confidence in that abilityâ€”is a recipe for success. In fact, however, more than 30 years of scientific investigation suggests that an overemphasis on intellect or talent leaves people vulnerable to failure, fearful of challenges and unwilling to remedy their shortcomings.
The result plays out in children [â€¦] who coast through the early grades under the dangerous notion that no-effort academic achievement defines them as smart or gifted. Such children hold an implicit belief that intelligence is innate and fixed, making striving to learn seem far less important than being (or looking) smart. This belief also makes them see challenges, mistakes and even the need to exert effort as threats to their ego rather than as opportunities to improve. And it causes them to lose confidence and motivation when the work is no longer easy for them.
The crux of the issue: don’t reward or praise children for being smart; save your rewards and praise effort.